SUGAR

     The main product of Sugar Industry is White Crystal Sugar.  A typical  White Crystal Sugar contains sucrose (97.5%) reducing sugar (0.86%) other organic compound (0.46%) ash (0.43%) and water (0.75%).  Sugar Cane contains 11 to 15% sucrose out of which only 8 to 11% is crystalizable.  The remaining sucrose goes into by product along with other sugars viz. Glucose and Fructose. 

BAGGASE  

            Baggase is the first by-product of cane sugar production.  The fibrous residual matter left out  after extraction of sugar cane juice is known as Baggase. It contains about 48.50% moisture, 48.0% fibre and 2.40% sugar and other minor constituents. It has been mainly used as fuel in Boiler to raise steam.  Nowadays it can be used for paper production.  

PAPER PRODUCTION FROM BAGASSE

   Baggase is used as a raw material in the paper industry. Cuba leads in this industry. A Fungi called white-rot fungi degrades the fibre to cellulose. Hemi cellulose and the lignin. It is done in huge fermentation vessels  where the fungi is inoculated. After this preliminary treatment, the material is washed and mixed with a 2 % NaOH solution. This enables dissolution of lignins. The fibrous matter is washed followed by pulping impresser digesters using sodium sulphide. . sodium sulphide liquors for about 4 hours. The pressure is released in tanks, followed by straining and washing to remove the pith. The digested, washed, pulp is now suitable for mixing  with other bamboo pulps to be used for paper making.

FILTER CAKE: 

      It is obtained from the cane juice, which is used as manure.  In the process of clarification, the hot limed juice  is delivered to large setting tanks. It consists of large tank with centrally placed slow moving agitator. Horizontal compartments or trags enable mud to slow down, and each having over flow take off for clarified juice.  The muds separating in the settling tanks are pumped to rotary filters.  Here they are filtered under vacuum using some powdered bagasse (bagacillo) as a filter aid.  The pH of the mud to be filtered will be around 7.5.  The temperature of sludge is maintained around 60 C to enable effective filtration.  The cake is continuously washed on the filter and some sugar is recovered here.  The cake is rich in protein and waxes. 

 

MOLASSES

Molasses is one of the important by-products , its production depends on the total quantity of cane crushed as well as quality, which varies from region to region . The increases in the percentage of sucrose in molasses greatly affects the final quantity of sugar.

          Molasses is the final effluent obtained in the preparation of sugar by repeated crystallization; it is the heavy viscous liquid from which no further sugar can be crystallized by the usual methods.

BLACKSTRAP MOLASSES

        Molasses  is called as blackstrap  molasses because of its dark brown viscous nature. It must not contain less than 40% of total sugar as invert.  

          The components of molasses include  

  1. Major  components ( water, sugar ,non-sugars )
  2. Minor components ( Trace elements, vitamins, growth substance)

 WATER:

           Commercial molasses have an average water content of 20% . The original end-products in the factory contain 12-17 % water.

           The principal sugar present in the molasses are sucrose, glucose and fructose the later two making up the major portion of the reducing sugars. The alkaline degradation of sucrose leads not only to glucose and fructose but also to Psicose and other carbohydrates. Molasses sometimes contain another non-reducing sugar namely  the trisaccharide ketose.

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